three decades of research has found that only a few interventions have had detectable effects on instruction and that, when such effects are detected, they rarely are sustained over time. A review of research and professional experience with school improvement suggests several explanations for these disheartening findings. One is that schools are complex social organizations situated within, and vitally affected by, other complex social systems including families, communities, and professional and regulatory agencies. The larger social environment of schools constrains and shapes the actions of teachers, students, and administrators, often in ways that greatly complicate the work of school improvement.
coaching A Strategy for Developing Instructional Capacity p r o m i s e s & p r a c t i c a l i t i e s Barbara Neufeld and Dana Roper Education Matters, Inc. The Aspen Institute Program on Education The Annenberg Institute for School Reform June